The History of Cuba - Part Three.

March 10, 1952 Batista play a military blow against Prío Socarrás's government, breaking the constitutional order. He receives the support of militaries forces and is proclaimed president. United States recognizes its government. Although the blow was bloodless, the student sectors begin a stage of protests.

In 1953, lawyer Fidel Castro heads an attack against the barracks Moncada of the oriental city Santiago de Cuba, about 900 kilometers to the east of Havana, with dozens of dead of both sides. Castro is arrested and convict to 15 years of prison. In 1955 the rebels, included Castro, were amnestied. In December of 1956, Castro heads a landing of rebellious forces of the Movement 26 of Julio coming from Mexico. The guerilla fight begins in the Sierra Maestra's mountains, in the oriental region and in the cities and towns begans too a not less strong fight of urban guerrilla, in particular in Havana and Santiago de Cuba. In 1958 the United States retires the military help to Batista's government that already for 2 years has derived in a bloody dictatorship that pursues and murderous opponents without adjustment to law some.

At the end of the fifties ' the North American capital is predominant in the economy of Cuba and it controls the one:

90% of the mining production
80% of the public services
50% of the railroads
40% of the production of sugar
25% of the bank deposits

In 1958, however, the Cuban economy has continued its growing acting and the country is located among the first ones 22 of the world for the level of its population's life that is of approximately 6 000 000 of inhabitants.

In the dawn of January 1, 1959 Batista with their relatives and close officials abandons escaping toward Dominican Republic and leaving a provisional government that soon crumbles, in next days the rebellious forces occupy the cities and towns of the country without resistance and the day 2 of January Commandant Camilo Cienfuegos enters in Havana, occupying it. Fidel Castro enters in Havana January 8, 1959 and is named First Minister in February. Almost immediately the Revolutionary Government implements a politics of nationalization of foreign and national companies and a law of Agrarian Reformation is signed that enter in contradiction with the interests of United States. Parallelly begins to produce an approach then with the Soviet Union and the call socialist field (communist), Anatas Mikoyan, Minister of External Relationships of the Soviet Union visits Havana in February of 1960 signing commercial agreements and in May of the same year diplomatic relationships are settles among the 2 countries. The United States takes economic and political measures, it imposes the economic embargo to the island (effective even nowadays) in October of 1960, it breaks up diplomatics relationships with Cuba in January of 1961 and offer support to the against government groups that inside of and outside of the island seek to overthrow the government. President Eisenhower orders to study and to plan actions, included armed, to put an end to Fidel Castro's government.

From the same year 1959 a strong migratory current of Cuba has begun toward United States that deprives the country of 50% of the doctors and teachers in the first years and that with the step of the years it will end up being of more of 1 000 000 of Cuban.

In April, 1961 armed Cuban exiles' trained by United States (around 1 500 men) carry out a landing in Bay of Pigs (Playa Girón, in Cuba) that is defeated in 3 days by the government forces. Parallelly already a strong against government movement that ends up having guerrillas in all the counties of the country exists although, they were particularly strong in the Sierra of the Escambray, in the center-southern region of the island that won't be defeated definitively until final of 1965. In April, 1961 Fidel Castro's declares the socialist character of the Cuban Revolution.

October 14, 1962 begin the call Crisis of the Missiles (Crisis of October, in Cuba) when an airplane of North American recognition discovers the construction of locations for nuclear missiles of medium reach near San Cristobal, in the county of Pinar del Rio and it finishes October 27 with the Soviet commitment of taking the missiles of Cuba and the North American out of not invading it. The world was never so near the nuclear war as in those 13 days.

In 1968 what was known as the revolutionary offensive rushes and 55 000 small companies and trade are nationalized being starting from that moment all the production goods and services in state hands, with the exception of small properties of peasants that were benefitted by the Agrarian Reformation of 1960 or that they were already proprietors to the victory of the Cuban Revolution.

In 1976 a new Constitution is adopted that it recognizes the socialist character of the Cuban state and among other changes it defines a new political-administrative division creating 14 counties (instead of the 6 that there was until then) but the special municipality of Island of the Youth (Island of Pines).

The social politicians go to a continuous improvement of the access and quality of the services of health and educational mainly (free both), but however the acting of the economy is precarious.

In 1991 with the disappearance of the call Socialist Field (communist block) and the Soviet Union the country loses 85% of its trade and international help abruptly and falls in a strong economic crisis that reaches its culminating point in the years of 1993 and 1994. The government implements certain measures of liberalization of the economy (markets agricultural peasants free, small private companies of services, as restaurants, cafeterias, etc, individual work self-employed (until then alone the work was admitted with state companies) and laws are promulgated that allow the foreign investment in certain economic sectors of the country and always in association with state companies. The measures palliated the economic crisis and they have allowed a certain recovery degree to the national economy.

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