The history of Cuba, at least the well know, begins in the year 1492 with the Discovery of America, since the primitive inhabitants of the country only reached an equivalent cultural development to the neolithic-mesolithic, and contrary to other cultures of the continent as the Mayan, Aztec or Inca, they didn't leave visible tracks in the country, unless in some name's places and in some indigenous words that were added to Spanish of Cuba.
According to the specialists of the topic, the man's presence in Cuba has begun approximately for 10 000 years behind (8 000 a.c.) and one almost has the certainty that the first human groups arrived from North America, either from the costs of the Florida or crossing Bahamas and of there to Cuba, or both routes. These first human groups were paleolithic hunters that moved until the outlet of the Missisippi after the hunt and of there to Florida.
Typical features: american indians of mongoloid origin: wide face, prominent cheekbones, half stature, without artificial deformation of the skull.
Cultural stadium: they dominated the fire and the techniques for carved of the stone, their fundamental activities were the gathering and the fishing.
Habitat: costs and rivers, the penetration toward the interior of the territory was scarce, they lived outdoors.
Typical features: american indians of mongoloid origin, neither practiced the artificial deformation of the skull.
Cultural stadium: their fundamental activities were the platform fishing and the gathering. They didn't dominate the techniques for carved of the stone, they made instruments with marine shells.
Habitat: in coast areas, they lived so much in caves and rocky coats as outdoors. They settled basically in the Peninsule of Guanahacabibes (western end of the country), the Zienaga (Marsh) of Zapata (center) and Island of Pines (south-occident), and they spread later until the oriental region for the south coast.
For this time the migratory moviemientos was increased substantially and they arrive in Cuba two different human groups:
- groups of residents coming from Florida and the valley of the Missisippi that settle in the north coast of today Matanzas province and they spread to the east and west, being ended up also settling down in the north of Havana and Villa Clara, in the south of the Peninsule of Guanahacabibes, in Camaguey and in the costs of Baracoa (in the Cuban east). These communities survived until the arrival of the Spaniards at the end of XV century.
- groups coming from the Antilles, settle down in the oriental region of the country, they are attributed the introduction of important cultivations like the tobacco, the corn and the yucca.
In essence these communities were advancing toward a culture but evolved and although their fundamental activities continued being the fishing and the gathering, they were introducing technical improvements that allowed improvements in the conditions of life and feeding.
Toward that time a new human group begins a lot to settle in Cuba with a culture more evolved that the previous ones, known later as the tainos and that they constituted the more important populational group to the arrival of the Spaniards. The tainos settled in Cuba in two waves:
the first one, between the years 500 and 1 000 d.c.
the second, from the year 1 000 d.c. until half-filled of the XV century
The tainos constituted a cultural-ethnic complex of reach Antillean and not alone Cuban. They are part of the family of the arawaks of South American origin and they arrived in the Biggest Antilles through the Smallest Antilles.
Typical features: american indians of mongoloid origin, of low stature and they practiced the artificial cranial deformation, seemingly with aesthetic ends.
Habitat: near areas to rivers and lagoons, as much in the costs as inside the country, extended from the oriental region to Havana and Matanzas, in the occident.
Cultural stadium: they practiced the agriculture like fundamental activity, they elaborated bread of yucca flour (called casabe), they knitted cotton hammocks and they lived at wooden homes of collective use.
The agricultural economy had as consequence a remarkable demographic growth and it was bigger than all the previous communities, a territorial stabilization of the populations in appropriate places for the cultivations and lastly, a development of the social organization.
To the arrival of the Spaniards to Cuba (October 27, 1492) the neolithic groups of origin arawak prevailed (tainos), the biggest populations concentrated on the oriental area of the country and they cohabited with the siboneyes and guanahatabeyes (located these in the western end), excluded groups of the Mesolithic.
The demographic calculations estimate toward the year 1510 an indigenous population of 112 000 inhabitants, 90% of which were tainos, with a hope of life of between 20 and 25 years when being born. Some few years later, toward the 1 540, the indigenous population was of hardly some hundreds of individuals; the violent crash of two cultures, the regime of "encomiendas" to that were subjected, the illnesses introduced by the Europeans (especially the flu) for which the natives didn't have natural defenses because they were not known in America and the inability for adaptarce to the new forms of life that were imposed him they put an end in few years to the culture and the aboriginal population from Cuba.
Today their racial tracks can notice in some areas of the oriental region and its cultural tracks in the presence of words in the language of the island and in some name's places (Cuba, Baracoa, Bayamo, Sagua, Havana, they are examples of these words).